Reg Z and Reg E — The United States Financial Regulation

Backspace Tech
5 min readJun 14, 2024


Scenario 1:

John, a cardholder, notices that his credit card statement includes unexpected fees that were not disclosed when he opened the account. John contacts his credit card issuer (bank) to dispute the unexpected charges, citing the requirement for clear and accurate disclosure of fees. The credit card issuer reviews John’s account and removes the unauthorized fees, ensuring that John is not unfairly charged for services he did not agree to.

Scenario 2:

Sarah, a cardholder, notices unfamiliar transactions on her debit card statement indicating potentially fraudulent activity. However, Sarah was protected from liability for unauthorized transactions as she promptly reported the theft of her debit card. She contacts her bank to report the suspicious activity, and the bank blocks the card and initiates an investigation. Sarah’s liability for the fraudulent charges was limited, and the bank refunded the disputed amount to her account.

Despite unexpected activity, both John and Sarah were protected!

First, Let’s see what shielded Sarah!

Regulation E

Regulation E aka Reg E is a rule set up by the Federal Reserve to protect consumers involved in Electronic Fund Transfers (EFTs). EFTs encompass any transactions that utilize electronic means (computers, phones, magnetic strips) to move money in or out of a bank account, such as ATM withdrawals, debit card purchases, or online bill payments.

Type of Transactions Covered

Reg E covers a wide array of electronic transactions which includes:

1. ATM transfers or withdrawals

2. Point-of-sale (POS) transactions using debit cards

3. Direct deposits and withdrawals made electronically

4. Transfers initiated via telephone banking systems, including IVR

5. Online and mobile banking transactions such as transfers, bill payments, and remote deposit capture

6. Electronic check conversions, where a paper check is converted into an electronic payment during processing

7. Electronic benefit transfers (EBT), such as government benefits issued on prepaid cards or transferred electronically

8. P2P transfers conducted electronically, including P2P payment platforms


We’ve explored what Reg E is and what it shelters under its roof!

Now, let’s know the importance!

Problems Solved by Reg E

It helps consumers in several ways with regard to EFTs, which include:

  • Protects consumers from unfair or deceptive practices by EFT providers

Reg E prohibits EFT providers from engaging in practices that could mislead consumers, such as failing to disclose important fees or terms of service.

  • Ensures consumers have basic rights and protections regarding electronic bank transfers

The regulation outlines a clear procedure for resolving errors, unauthorized transfers, and consumer disputes ensuring that consumers have a fair shot at getting their money back if something goes wrong.

  • Provides a mechanism for resolving errors and unauthorized transfers quickly and fairly

If the consumer finds an unauthorized transaction on their account, Reg E sets a time limit for reporting the error and lays out the steps that the bank must take to investigate and resolve the issue.

  • Helps prevent the loss of money due to electronic banking errors

By requiring banks to implement specific security measures and procedures, it safeguards consumers from fraudulent activity and mistakes.


Reg E outlines a process for resolving disputes between consumers and their banks. Here’s how it works:

  • Time Limits: Consumers have 60 days to report a dispute to the bank after they receive their account statement reflecting the error.
  • Bank’s Investigation: The bank has 10 business days to investigate the issue after receiving the consumer’s claim. They must resolve it within this timeframe if possible.
  • Temporary Credit: If the bank needs more time (up to 45 days total), they must usually provide the consumer with a provisional credit within 10 days of receiving the dispute. This essentially puts the disputed funds back in the consumer account while the investigation continues.
  • Bank’s Decision: The bank needs to inform the consumer of their decision within the allocated timeframe (10 or 45 days). They must correct any errors they find within one business day.


We glimpsed the cloak that shielded Sarah!

Now, let’s shift our focus to John’s case and know what protected him!

Regulation Z:

Regulation Z/Reg Z aka Truth in Lending Act (TILA), amended through the Fair Credit Billing Act of 1974 is a regulatory framework governing the extension of credit across multiple financial sectors, including credit cards, mortgages, and personal loans requiring interest repayment.

Its primary objective is to ensure consumers engage in credit transactions with full awareness and understanding of the terms and costs involved. By mandating disclosure requirements and standardizing practices, Reg Z aims to promote transparency and empower consumers to make informed credit decisions.

Since 2011, oversight, updates, and enforcement of Reg Z have been the responsibility of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB).

Type of Transactions Covered:

Regulation Z covers a variety of consumer credit transactions, including:

  • Mortgages: This applies to all types of mortgages, including fixed-rate, adjustable-rate, and home equity loans (HELOCs).
  • Credit Cards: Reg Z ensures clear disclosures for credit card terms, including interest rates, annual fees, and grace periods.
  • Instalment Loans: This includes personal loans, auto loans, and other loans that consumers repay in fixed installments.
  • Certain Private Student Loans: Reg Z applies to private student loans but not federal student loans.


Let’s uncover the significance of this sheltering canopy!

Problems Solved by Reg Z

Regulation Z addresses several critical issues in consumer credit transactions, including:

  • Transparency and Informed Decision-Making:

Reg Z’s disclosure requirements compel lenders to provide comprehensive information about credit terms and costs to borrowers, such as the APR, loan terms, and total costs. This transparency empowers consumers to make informed decisions when obtaining credit, reducing the risk of entering into agreements with hidden fees or unfavorable terms.

  • Protection:

By establishing rights for consumers, such as the right to rescind certain credit transactions within three days, Reg Z safeguards individuals from entering into credit obligations that they do not fully understand or want. This protection helps prevent consumers from falling prey to predatory lending practices or deceptive loan terms.

  • Error Resolution:

Similar to Reg E, which covers electronic fund transfers, Reg Z includes provisions for resolving billing errors on credit accounts. These provisions ensure that consumers have mechanisms in place to address and rectify any inaccuracies or discrepancies in their billing statements, enhancing confidence in the credit system and protecting against unfair billing practices.


Reg Z sets guidelines for how credit card issuers (banks) must handle billing errors related to credit transactions. Here’s a breakdown of the general process:

  • Initiating the Dispute

The consumer needs to notify their credit card issuer in writing (letter, online form, etc.) about the billing error on their statement. This should be done within 60 days of the statement closing date.

  • Issuer Investigation

Once notified, the issuer has a legal obligation to investigate the consumer claim thoroughly and reach a conclusion within a specific timeframe (2 billing cycles but no later than 90 days.)

  • Temporary Credit

Reg Z doesn’t require issuers to provide provisional credit (like Reg E).

  • Resolution and Communication

The issuer will inform the consumer of their decision after the investigation. They should explain their findings and whether they will adjust the consumer bill as requested.

  • Disagreement with Resolution

If the consumer disagrees with the issuer’s decision, they have the right to submit a rebuttal and request further investigation.

Lastly, both Reg Z and Reg E apply to the United States.

To know more about the payment ecosystem, chargeback, and dispute nuances through delightful bytes of information, follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, and Threads.

P.S: What topic do you think we should explore next? Let us know in the comments.



Backspace Tech

Backspace Tech offers Fintech-as-a-Service to automate,simplify, and disrupt the payment industry by handling chargeback requests through a plug-and-play model.